Understanding prevalent financial records will certainly help you make sure your nonprofit"s financial administration is in excellent hands.

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5 financial papers for eextremely US nonprofit

Auditors, potential grantors, the board of directors—any of these teams can request an extensive report on your nonprofit"s financial health and wellness and also stability. If the believed fills you with dreview, do not despair. Even if you have actually a restricted financial background, you have the right to learn the basics. Being increated will certainly aid you make sure your organization"s financial monitoring is in great hands. Let"s begin via 5 widespread financial files.

Statement of financial position (SOP)

The SOP is the nonprofit"s tantamount of a for-profit company"s balance sheet. It offers a picture of your organization"s finances, listing assets in order of liquidity—the speed at which they deserve to be converted to cash—and liabilities in order of length of duty. The SOP is traditionally prepared at the end of the fiscal year, although bigger institutions or those via substantial financial transforms can select to prepare an SOP quarterly or even monthly.

Assets include cash and also cash equivalents, such as gift cards or certificates, grants receivable, or depreciable furnishings or devices. Liabilities encompass accounts payable, grants as a result of various other organizations, or debts. Your net assets are those remaining assets after liabilities have actually been subtracted from assets. The "accounting equation" (assets = liabilities + net assets) demonstprices that your nonprofit has sufficient cash or cash equivalents on hand also to equal its outstanding debts.

Donor contributions—which are part of your net assets—are accounted for and also totaled separately in the SOP based on their category: unrestricted, temporarily limited or permanently limited. Temporary limitations might be grants or docountries via particular donor stipulations, such as being provided for a particular routine or at a particular time. Permanent restrictions, such as endowments, are not particularly prevalent among smaller sized nonearnings yet should be had if applicable.

Statement of activities

The statement of tasks (sometimes called the statement of support) mirrors how your net assets change over time, enhancing as revenue comes in and decreasing as prices are passist. The statement of tasks is the nonprofit identical of a for-profit income statement.

Like the assets section in the SOP, the statement of activities distinguishes in between unlimited, temporarily limited and permanently restricted activities. If revenue comes in within one year (or various other specified period) but through a restriction that prevents it from being supplied immediately, that revenue is designated as temporarily minimal. If a donor provides an endowment or some other financial gift that deserve to never before be used to programs, it would certainly be designated as permanently restricted. However, the income earned from an endowment in the develop of interemainder does obtain reported, aacquire through appropriate constraints.

See more: Salary: Program Director Nonprofit Salary, Director Nonprofit Annual Salary ($74,274 Avg

Income that isn"t cash, such as a docountry of goods, might be videotaped in the revenue column. Similarly, any kind of costs that the acceptance of such items entails—such as added protection or storage facilities—have to be taped in the expenses column.

There are some complicated ins-and-outs of activity statements for issues such as docountry of services and also acquiring arsenal items for museums (which aren"t always classified as revenue). These are addressed in the mainly accepted accountancy ethics (GAAP) for activity statements. Keep in mind, yet, there are differences in the GAAP therapy of donated items and solutions and exactly how these items are taped on the IRS Form 990.

Statement of practical expenses

As the name indicates, the statement of sensible costs lists prices by attribute, such as regime expenses, governmental prices and also fundincreasing costs. Taking it one step even more, this statement likewise lists expenses by type, such as salaries and also benefits, rent and utilities, and also so on. The presentation is typically a matrix or table.

The division mirrors readers of this financial statement—whether auditors, board members or potential grantors—the balance your nonprofit maintains in between funding programs and also preserving a staff. On one hand also, governmental prices shouldn"t be grossly out of propercentage to routine capital. On the other, administrative resources shouldn"t be pumelted down so low that you"re not attracting competent, qualified staff.

In practice, prices might be in 2 or more categories at the exact same time. In this situation, it"s proper to recognize a relative breakdown and correctly allocate costs in each category proportionally.

Statement of cash flows

The statement of cash flows provides a picture of the cash coming in and going out in a given duration, whether it"s a year, a quarter, a month, or produced on demand for a figured out time duration. The statement of cash flows typically contains up to three sections, depending upon your nonprofit"s sources of cash. For most nonearnings, this suggests net cash from:

Operating activities (such as unminimal funds elevated from fundraising activities or cash fees from fee-for-organization operations) Investing activities (such as costs or earnings from the purchase or sale of tools or various other long-term investments) Financing activities (such as income from issuing or redeeming bonds)

Annual report

Often, nonrevenues have appropriate indevelopment around finances that isn"t contained in fundamental financial statements. Get in the yearly report, which you deserve to use to communicate your organization"s fiscal wellness in richer detail. Information pertinent to the yearly report might include:

Attendance documents for fundincreasing or neighborhood occasions — noting that significant attendance could point to financial improvement in the future, especially if a brand-new donor pool has been established Lists of donors and their giving levels Discussion of the mission or the previous year"s tasks, lobbying successes, volunteer assistance and also so on

Done well, an annual report have the right to inspire assistance for your mission. Even much better, annual reports assist entice donors while promoting a society of transparency and also accountcapacity.


National Assembly of State Arts Agencies: How to assess nonprofit financial performance by Elizabeth K. Keating and Peter Frumkin (2008)