RED RIGHT HAND ULSTER VOLUNTEER

Who are Northern Ireland’s “loyalists”?

Loyalists desire Northern Ireland also to remajor part of the United Kingdom , and also many are willing to assistance the use of violence to keep the Protestant-majority province, also well-known as Ulster , under British dominion. They are the adversaries of the Irish Republican Army, and also others who look for a unified Ireland also , in the violent decades-lengthy struggle that the Irish speak to “the Troubles.” Young Protestant men from Ulster ’s the majority of downtrodden communities make up the core membership of loyalist paraarmy groups, which are successfully pro-state terrorist institutions.

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How many loyalist paramilitary teams are there?

Historically, there were two main organizations: the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), founded in 1966 (and named for a very early twentieth- century company through the same mission), and the larger Ulster Defence Association (UDA), a network-related of vigilante groups started in 1971. UDA members also usage the name Ulster Freedom Fighters. The UVF and also the UDA cooperated very closely with the Integrated Loyalist Military Command also for much of the 1990s, however this association liquified amid a violent feud in 2001.

Three hard-line offshoots have arised from these groups in recent years: the Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF), in 1996, and the Red Hand also Defenders and also the Orange Volunteers, in 1998. Authorities think the last 2 may ssuggest be cover names supplied by UDA and also LVF members conducting strikes.

In December 2001, the State Department noted four of these Protestant paraarmed forces institutions as terrorist teams, all except the Ulster Volunteer Force.

What is the dispute in Northern Ireland about?

Following a 1916 upclimbing and years of guerrilla war led by the legendary Irish nationalist Michael Collins, the British government chose in 1920 to divide Ireland also, which it had actually ruled as a nest for centuries. An independent state, the Republicof Ireland also, was developed in the island’s mostly Catholic southern, and also the 6 Ulster counties in the north, with a Protestant majority, remained part of the United Kingdom. The dispute is both political and also religious: Many kind of Catholic “republicans” in Ulster have complained of being treated as second-course citizens, and they seek to unite Northern Ireland via the Republic of Ireland, however the majority of Protestants wantNorthern Irelandto reprimary part of theUnited Kingdom. Almost 3,500 human being on both sides have died because the Troubles began in 1969.

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What attacks have the loyalist paraarmed forces teams brought out?

Regardless of accounting for practically thirty percent of the deaths in the Northern Ireland dispute, loyalists’ assaults have actually mostly drawn much less media and global attention than those perpetrated by the IRA. Major loyalist strikes include:

The UVF’s 1966 shooting of 4 Catholics, one fatally, exterior a Belrapid pub. This strike was the initially major act of sectarian violence since Ireland also was split, and it spurred Catholic activism, which shortly turned violent. The UVF’s 1969 battle of a power terminal close to Belquick. At first attributed to the IRA, this strike also assisted create the Troubles. The UVF’s 1971 battle of a Belfastpub, which eliminated fifteenager world. A pair of UVF bombings in Dublin and Monaghan, both in the Republic of Ireland, on May 17, 1974, that eliminated thirty-3 civilians, making now the deadliest of the conflict. The UDA’s October 1993 machine-gun attack on a bar in the Northern Ireland tvery own of Greysteel, which killed eight civilians.The LVF killing of Sinn Fein leader Gerry Adams’ nephew in January 1998. A fierce campaign of intimidation and also abuse of Catholic schoolgirls inBelquick in between June and October 2001.The murder of fourBelrapid inhabitants in the summer of 2005 (marching season). The Independent Monitoring Commission blamed the UVF for the deaths in a one-of-a-kind report in September and also the group’s ceasefire was asserted damaged later that month.

Religious violence, harassment, and intimidation generally flare up during the summer “marching seachild,” once hard-line Protestants don bowlers and ovariety sashes and parade through Catholic areas to celebprice centuries-old battlefield victories. Many Catholics check out these parades as provocations.

Have the loyalist teams targeted civilians?

Yes—and also even more generally than the IRA. Between 1968 and 1998, loyalist paramilitaries eliminated an estimated 864 civilians (a lot of of them Catholic), compared via an estimated 728 civilians (a lot of of them Protestant) eliminated by the IRA. Experts say loyalist teams have often acted out of spiritual hatred, while the IRA has even more regularly targeted British defense officers—killing more than 1,000 of them—in an initiative to further its political goal of ejecting the British from Northern Ireland also .

How substantial are the loyalist paraarmy groups?

At its top in the 1970s, the UDA had actually some 40,000 members, yet the UVF and the UDA now are thought to be only several hundred solid. The LVF, the Red Hand also Defenders, and also the Ovariety Volunteers count only dozens of members each, maybe with a good deal of overlap.